Here, we will attempt to provide current resources to better inform our discussions.

Remember! Changing paradigms about mass incarceration and issues around it mean being deliberately considerate about the terminologies we use. Although these articles may use terms like, “ex-offender,” we’d prefer to refer to our brothers and sisters who have been incarcerated as “formerly incarcerated” or “returning citizens.”

Pleaseimg_3467 feel free to contribute!

The Importance of Both Opportunity and Social Disorganization Theory in a Future Research Agenda to Advance Criminological Theory and Crime Prevention at Places
David Weisburd, Elizabeth R. Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang
Excerpt: “Criminology has been primarily focused on people and why they commit crime. In an article in Crime and Justice that examined quantitative studies of criminological theory in Criminology (1968–2005), 60 percent of the articles identified focused on individuals (Weisburd and Piquero 2008). Just 15 (8 percent) of the studies examined communities or neighborhoods.”

The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons
Ashley Nellis, Ph.D.
Excerpt: “African Americans are incarcerated in state prisons across the country at more than five times the rate of whites, and at least ten times the rate in five states. This report documents the rates of incarceration for whites, African Americans, and Hispanics in each state, identifies three contributors to racial and ethnic disparities in imprisonment, and provides recommendations for reform.”

Issues to Consider When Facilitating Groups with Battered Women in Jail or Prison
Andrea Bible
Excerpt: “If you want to start a group with domestic violence survivors in jail or prison, there are many issues to consider as you’re getting started. This document is designed to help you identify some of the things that are helpful to think about before you start the group, and hopefully will continue to be a helpful resource once the group is underway.”

Evaluation of the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program: A Positive Psychology Intervention With Prison Inmates
Kim H. Huynh, Brittany Hall, Mark A. Hurst, and Lynette H. Bikos
Excerpt from Abstract: “Two groups of male inmates (n = 31, n = 31) participated in the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program (PRCP). This positive psychology intervention focused on teaching offenders skills that facilitate re-entry into the community…”

Recidivism Among Released State Prison Inmates Who Received Mental Health Treatment While Incarcerated
William H. Fisher, Stephanie W. Hartwell, Xiaogang Deng, Debra A. Pinals, Carl Fulwiler, and Kristen Roy-Bujnowski
Excerpt from Abstract: “This study assesses the likelihood of rearrest among a cohort of all adults (N = 1,438) released from the Massachusetts state prison system who received mental health services while they were incarcerated….”

Relational Vulnerabilities of Incarcerated and Reentry Mothers: Therapeutic Implications
April L. Few-Demo and Joyce A. Arditt
Excerpt from Abstract: “A qualitative study involving a follow-up interview with 10 incarcerated and reentry mothers in rural southwest and central Virginia was conducted to explore the influence that women’s close relationships have on their reentry experiences with their families…”

An Outcome Evaluation of a Midwestern Prisoner Reentry Initiative
Brett E. Garland and Aida Y. Hass
Excerpt from Abstract: “In recent years, correctional and community agencies have developed and promoted an array of policies and programs aimed at successfully facilitating the offender transition from prison to community. One model, the Reentry Partnership Initiative (RPI), emphasizes building collaborative partnerships in an effort to deliver a coordinated and continuous stream of supervision, services, and support during the transitional process and includes institutional, structured reentry, and community reintegration phases…”

Declining Drug Enforcement after Proposition 47
Maureen Washburn
Excerpt: “Following the implementation of Proposition 47 in late 2014, there was a 67 percent statewide drop in felony drug arrests—a decline driven by the reclassification of possession of a narcotic.”

The Transition From Prison to Community Initiative: An Examination of Gender Responsiveness for Female Offender Reentry
Kristy Holtfreter, Katelyn A. Wattanaporn
Abstract: This review examines female offender reentry within the context of the Transition from Prison to Community Initiative (TPCI). Specifically, we consider each stage of the TPCI, noting the extent to which current reentry policies and practices can be informed by gender responsiveness. To illustrate further, we compare reentry approaches and correctional outcomes in two states. Directions for further research on female offender reentry and TPCI evaluations are discussed.

The Geography of Incarceration:The Cost and Consequences of High Incarceration Rates in Vulnerable City Neighborhoods 
Authors: Benjamin Forman,  Laura van der Lugt, Ben Editors: Golberg, Anise Vance, Sandy Kendall

Treatment Industrial Complex: How For-Profit Prison Corporations are Undermining Efforts to Treat and Rehabilitate Prisoners for Corporate Gain
Caroline Isaacs
Excerpt: Over the last 30 years, for-profit prison corporations, such as Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) and GEO Group (formerly Wackenhut Corrections Corporation), have benefited from the dramatic rise in incarceration and detention in the United States.

Multistate Criminal History Patterns of Prisoners Released in 30 States
Matthew R. Durose, Howard N. Snyder, Ph.D., and Alexia D. Cooper, Ph.D., BJS Statisticians
Excerpt: During their criminal careers prior to and for 5 years following release, the 404,638 prisoners released in 2005 in 30 states were arrested an estimated 5.5 million times.

By the Numbers: Parole Release and Revocation Across 50 States
Robina Institute, April, 2016
“The Data Profiles in this report are designed to provide a statistical snapshot of the relationships and movements between prison and parole supervision populations in each state.”

Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment
Amanda Agan and Sonja Starr1
Excerpt from Abstract: “Ban-the-Box” (BTB) policies restrict employers from asking about applicants’ criminal histories on job applications and are often presented as a means of reducing unemployment among black men, who disproportionately have criminal records. However, withholding information about criminal records could risk encouraging statistical discrimination: employers may make assumptions about criminality based on the applicant’s race. 

How Many Americans are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?
Dr. James Austin and Lauren-Brooke Eisen with James Cullen and Jonathan Frank

The Intersectionality of Race, Gender, and Reentry: Challenges for African-American Women
Geneva Brown
Excerpt from Abstract: To deliver up bodies destined for profitable punishment, the political economy of [the prison-industrial complex] relies on racialized assumptions of criminality – such as images of black welfare mothers reproducing criminal children – and on racist practices in arrest, conviction, and sentencing patterns

African American Men’s Health and Incarceration: Access to Care upon Reentry and Eliminating Invisible Punishments
Amy L. Katzent
Excerpt from Abstract: African American men suffer worse health outcomes and have a lower life expectancy than other demographic groups. The disproportionately high incarceration rates of African American men for drug and other crimes is a crucial factor in understanding and combating health inequities.

From Prison to Home: The Dimensions and Consequences of Prisoner Reentry
Jeremy Travis Amy L. Solomon Michelle Waul

From Prison to Home: Women’s Pathways in and out of Crime
Jennifer E. Cobbina M.A.
A Dissertation submitted to the Graduate School for partial completion of the requirements of the Doctor of Philosophy degree, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri – St. Louis

The Role of Prevention in Promoting Continuity of Health Care in Prisoner Reentry Initiatives
LaKeesha N. Woods, PhD, A. Stephen Lanza, MA, William Dyson, MEd, and Derrick M. Gordon, PhD
Excerpt: Most incarcerated individuals will return to the community, and their successful reentry requires consideration of their health and how their health will affect their families and communities.

Ghetto Blasting: On Loïc Wacquant’s “Urban Outcasts”
Tom Slater, University of Edinburgh
Excerpt: Students can be tough critics, but sometimes their collective reaction is a good measure of the importance and quality of scholarship. I first became aware of the power of Loïc Wacquant’s writing in 2004, when I started using some of his articles to teach undergraduates about some deeply problematic transformations of urban society in the US and in Europe

The Process of Offender Reintegration: Perceptions of What Helps Prisoners Reenter Society
Celeste Davis, Stephen J Bahr and Carol Ward – Brigham Young University, USA
Excerpt from Abstract: Qualitative data from16 offenders were analyzed to understand the process of reintegration from their perspective. The offenders identified six factors that they felt influenced their ability to reintegrate and desist from crime: (1) substance abuse; (2) employment; (3) family support; (4) types of friends; (5) personal motivation to change; and (6) age.

The Supervision to Aid Reentry (STAR) Program: Enhancing the Social Capital of Ex-Offenders
Caitlin J. Taylor – La Salle University, USA
Excerpt from Abstract: This article explores a central finding from a process evaluation of a federal reentry court program entitled the Supervision to Aid Reentry (STAR) program in Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Rehabilitating Criminal Selves: Gendered Strategies in Community Corrections
Jessica J. B. Wyse
Excerpt from AbstractAs the community corrections system has moved away from a focus on rehabilitation, it has been suggested that criminal offenders are no longer understood psychologically, but rather as rational actors for whom criminality is a choice.

Home Is Hard to Find: Neighborhoods, Institutions, and the Residential Trajectories of Returning Prisoners
David J. Harding, Jeffrey D. Morenoff, Claire W. Herbert
Excerpt from Abstract: Poor urban communities experience high rates of incarceration and prisoner reentry. This article examines where former prisoners live after prison, focusing on returns to pre-prison social environments, residential mobility, and the role of intermediate sanctions—punishments for parole violations that are less severe than returning to prison—on where former prisoners live.

Home for Good: Overcoming Legal Barriers to Reentry in Georgia
Third Edition Written and Edited by Bridgett E. Ortega, M.A., J.D., Assistant Dean Atlanta’s John Marshall Law School Office of Experiential Learning Student Contributors Akua Amaning, S. Kent Buis, Eufemia Cabrera-D’Amour, Sharon Fowler, Sharee Malcolm, Jason Mitchell, Yesenia Muhammad

Breaches in the Wall: Imprisonment, Social Support, and Recidivism
Joshua C. Cochran
Excerpt from Abstract: Objectives: Drawing on theories that emphasize the salience of social ties, this study examines the different kinds of experiences prisoners have with visitation and the implications of those experiences for behavior after release.

Additional Resources/Bibliography