Successful processes of reentry are complicated or even thwarted if the returning offender uses drugs and/or alcohol. In fact, these behaviors are strong predictors of reoffending (Dowden & Brown 2002) – a well-known fact to the criminal justice system (Fletcher, Lehman, Wexler, Melnick, Taxman, & Young 2009). Although fragmented and uncoordinated, there have been services in place inside and outside of the prison/jail systems to address these issues (Fletcher et al. 2009). This clear need of the reentering offender can be met as successful recovery from even fatalistic abuse of drugs is a reality (Volkow et al. 1993) – essential for successful reintegration (Bahr et al. 2010). Based on the information provided by Volkow et al. (1993), churning (prison’s revolving door in and out, or the community’s revolving door out and in) does not have to be due to substance abuse issues.
Excerpt from: “Offender Reclamation Revisited” J.H.Costen, JR
Barh, Stephen J., Lish Harris, James K. Fisher and Anita Harker Armstrong. 2010. “Successful Reentry: What Differentiates Successful and Unsuccessful Parolees.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 54:667-692.
Dowden, Craig and S. L. Brown. 2002. “The Role of Substance Abuse Factors in Predicting Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology, Crime & Law. 8:243-264.
Fletcher, B. W., Lehman, W. E., Wexler, H. K., Melnick, G., Taxman, F. S., & Young, D. W. (2009). Measuring collaboration and integration activities in criminal justice and substance abuse treatment agencies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 103(Supplement 1), S54-S64.
Volkow, N.D., J.S. Fowler, G.J. Wang, R. Hitzemann, J. Logan, D. Schlyer, S. Dewey, and A.P. Wolf. 1993. “Decreased Dopamine D2 Receptor Availability is Associated with Feduced Frontal Metabolism in Cocaine Abusers. Synapse 14:169-177.
Wacquant, Loïc. 2010. “Class, Race & Hyper-Incarceration in Revanchist America.” Daedalus 139,3:74-90.
Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.