Increasingly, the degradation ceremonies of the urban Black American male happen before incarceration. Hardened systems of social inequality continue to determine who gets what and why (Kerbo 2003). This misallocated stratification (Boothe 2007, Lopez 2010) demarcates life chances and choices of Black American men (Royster 2003; Blackmon 2008; Pager 2009; Alexander 2010). With fewer school-to-work opportunities and career trajectories than their White counterpart (Royster 2003; Roscigno & Mong 2007; Pager 2009), the Black American male becomes alienated and distraught about his inability to support his family and turns to antisocial, addictive, exploitive, and confrontational lifestyles (Anderson 1999, Royster 2003, Western 2006). Young, under- or uneducated, under- or unemployed, and idle, these men become even more weakly committed to their societal roles and persuaded to choose crime -usually non-violent and drug involved (Boothe 2007, Alexander 2010), because of its perceived payoff (Wilson 1990, Western 2006).
Alexander, Michelle. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindedness. New York: The New York Press.
Blackmon, Douglas A. 2008. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. New York: Doubleday.
Boothe, Demico. 2007. Why Are So Many Black Men In Prison?USA: Full Surface Publishing.
Kerbo, Harold R. 2003. Social Stratification and Inequality: Class Conflict in Historical, Comparative, and Global Perspective. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Lopez, Ian F. Haney. 2010. Post-Racial Racism: Racial Stratification and Mass Incarceration in the Age of Obama. California Law Review Retrieved September 11, 2012. (http://www.californialawreview.org/articles/post-racial-racism-racial-stratification-and-mass-incarceration-in-the-age-of-obama).
Pager, Devah. 2007. Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Roscigno, Vincent J. and Sherry Mong. 2007. “Discrimination and African American Men: A Precarious Historical Legacy.” In The Face of Discrimination: How Race and Gender Impact Work and Home Lives. Lanham: Bowman & Littlefield.
Royster, Deirdre A. 2003. Race and the Invisible Hand: How White Networks Exclude Black Men from Blue-Collar Jobs. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Western, Bruce. 2006. Punishment and Inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Wilson, Amos N. 1990. Black-on-Black Violence. New York: Afrikan World Infosystems.